Circulars

New yellow fever vaccination recommendations for travelers in Brazil


15/03/2018 - 5:45 | Author: Proinde

Brazil is facing a severe outbreak of yellow fever, having experienced a significant upsurge in the number of fatal cases and the geographic spread of the disease in the last few months.

According to preliminary reports released by the Brazilian Ministry of Health last week, between July 2017 and March 2018, the viral infection was confirmed in 846 human cases with 260 deaths in cities within the States of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and in the Federal District. In the same period last year, 597 cases with 190 fatalities were verified.

The yellow fever virus is a flavivirus transmitted by the infected female of Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in tropical areas of Africa, Central America and South America, including some areas of Brazil, notably in the North and Centre-West Regions.

Mosquitoes become infected with the yellow fever virus after biting infected non-human primates (monkeys) and humans. No human-to-human or animal-to-human transmission occurs; the only competent vectors are the mosquitoes.

Typical symptoms of yellow fever tend to appear after an incubation period of three to six days and include moderate fever, muscle pain with prominent backaches, intense headaches, shivers, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting. About 15% of patients progress into a more toxic phase of the infection, which has symptoms such as high fever, jaundice and abdominal pain with vomiting. Half of the infected people who enter the severer form of the infection die within a couple of weeks. Those who survive generally acquire long-lasting immunity to the disease.

Vaccination against yellow fever is safe, affordable and abundantly available. It produces effect after ten days of administration and a single dose provides lifelong protection. It is, in fact, the only effective means of personal protection against the infection.

Download the complete circular here.

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